This 3D Printing in plastic is one of the many 3D Printing videos that show how the technology works. Once a tissue design is established, the first step is to develop the bioprocess protocols required to generate the multi-cellular building blocks—also called bio-ink—from the cells that will be used to build the target tissue.

The bio-ink building blocks are then dispensed from a bioprinter, using a layer-by-layer approach that is scaled for the target output. Bio-inert hydrogel components may be utilized as supports, as tissues are built up vertically to achieve three-dimensionality, or as fillers to create channels or void spaces within tissues to mimic features of native tissue. The bioprinting process can be tailored to produce tissues in a variety of formats, from micro-scale tissues contained in standard multi-well tissue culture plates, to larger structures suitable for placement onto bioreactors for biomechanical conditioning prior to use.